Saturday, December 28, 2019
Dictionary.com defines, Ã¢â¬Å"socialismÃ¢â¬ , as Ã¢â¬Å"a theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.Ã¢â¬ Over the years, Israel has struggled with the ideals of socialism in conjunction with itÃ¢â¬â¢s reality. The concept of a successful socialist society in Israel has failed as shown through the collapse of the socialist economic system, the implementation of changes for a less involved government and the rise of a free market capitalist society. In the beginning of IsraelÃ¢â¬â¢s history, government involvement in economics was enormous. There was a large economic burden to absorb new immigrants, in addition to the burden of the War of Independence. Due to the pressure that Israel was confronted with, the only way to provide basic needs for Israeli citizens was through government intervention. Socialist ideals were originally implemented not only because of ideological factors, but because of economic necessity. The Israeli government had a difficult time supporting their ideals, as they did not have significant ownership of means of production. The Labor Party involved itself in the economy through labor enterprises, but the profits from these companies were not sufficient. (Zilberfarb) Israel was faced with great economic challenges soon after the new state was established with socialist ideals in 1948. The trouble started with subsidies for goodsShow MoreRelatedDifferences Between East And West Germany1039 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGermany and Berlin was occupied by the Soviet Union. This led to major differences between the two halves of Germany. This also led to the building of the Berlin Wall in 1961. Each side of Germany had different economies, held separate ideologies, societies, alliances, and political systems, and each side dealt with the memories of World War II in a different way. One of the major differences between East and West Germany is how they came to terms with their past, Vergangenheitsbewaltigung is theRead MoreThe Suez Canal Crisis of 1956648 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesparticipating in Syrian politics, sparking a hatred for the urban elite. BaÃ¢â¬â¢athist ideology supports the middle and lower classes, and believes that Arab socialism is the only way to develop a flourishing society. The BaÃ¢â¬â¢ath party in Syria was established through the merger of the Arab Socialist Party and the Arab BaÃ¢â¬â¢ath Party in 1947( BBC News, 2012). By the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s they had acquired an urban middle class base, however they were not solely a middle class party. Recruitment of the lower class andRead MoreThe Modern Age Of Islam1179 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIslamic world has tried to become strong again through both secularism and religion, with neither answer showing a complete, absolute advantage over the other. This is shown through Atta Turk completely removing Islam out of the newly formed Turkish society, the Baath PartyÃ¢â¬â¢s secular ideology while still committing massacre, and Hezbollah using a radicalized form of religion to gain political strength. The beginning of the modern age of Islam can be marked with NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s conquest of Egypt and the subsequentRead MoreIn The Book Hegemony Or Survival Noam Chomsky Talks About909 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe U.S. would depose the idea that would contain the United States, china, and IndiaÃ¢â¬ (Pg. 155). The united states and the middle east relationships that moves towards the issue of weapons of mass destruction and a relationship that the us had with Israel. He takes a turn for someone conservative and tries to take a more neutral approach. He shows the readers the reasons and definition behind terrorism. The final chapter of ChomskyÃ¢â¬â¢s book is about nuclear warfare. He discusses the United States strategicRead MoreUpheaval and Renewal in Egypt and Syria 1585 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesreligious groups. Lastly the focus will be on Al-AsadÃ¢â¬â¢s cult of personality and the Egyptian use of elections as opposite ways to legitimise the regime. In 1970 the new leaders in Syria and Egypt had to face the problem of gathering support from society. The Egyptian President Sadat was considered not worthy of taking the place of Nasser, by both the exponents of the regime, and the other Arab countries. NasserÃ¢â¬â¢s regime was starting to fall apart and the institutions were becoming possible rivalsRead MoreEssay on Why Some Economies Grow Faster Than Others2764 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesFaster Than Others A Comparison of Cuba and Israel Harry M. Geedey Professor Evelyn Bolden Economics 250 March 1, 2011 Abstract The governments of Cuba and Israel are relatively young. The two countries are of similar size, population, and possess similar natural resources. They each have port cities with easy access to the world. Their governments were founded on socialist principles. Despite the similarities, the economic performance of Israel has far outpaced CubaÃ¢â¬â¢s. This paper willRead MoreAnalysis Of Priestley s An Inspector Calls 1741 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPredominantly, I agree that PriestleyÃ¢â¬â¢s message is still valid in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, although perhaps not to the same extent as it was when the play was first written, on account of the changes that have occurred in the interim period. The message of Ã¢â¬ËAn Inspector CallsÃ¢â¬â¢ surrounds the themes of collective responsibility and equality to improve the lives of everyone. In a world still struggling with poverty, conflict and social divide, I think that it is inevitable that parallels between what PriestleyRead Mor eGeorge Washington s President Of The United States961 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAddress, George Washington declared, Ã¢â¬Å"And let us with caution indulge the supposition, that morality can be maintained without religion.Ã¢â¬ He stressed the point that without Biblical principles, moral values cannot exist. In contemporary American society, Biblical principles have been eradicated. President Obama began his unconstitutional journey to obliterate the sanctity of marriage between man and woman by ordering to the Department of Justice to halt its enforecment of the Defensive Marriage ActRead MoreThe Oil Embargo of 1972-19731247 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Introduction In our society, oil is one of the core requirements. Whether it is to drive from a point A to a point B or to fly between distant countries, oil always had a fundamental impact on our civilization. Its impact is felt, on a daily basis and under many aspects. Not a day goes by without hearing about the Brents changing undulation, on the markets in New York or London. Some have thought that the desire to gain control of Irans oil resources was the core of the CIAs intervention inRead MoreGamal Abdel Nasser1732 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdictator. As mentioned, a single party leader usually arises during a period of crisis. In the case of Nasser, this crisis happened to be the Military and social crisis that was the Israeli war of 1948-49. This war started a day after the U.N. Recognised Israel as an in dependant country. The war provoked criticism toward the rulers of the Arab nations and also led to the development of more ideological movements and political platforms such as NasserÃ¢â ¬â¢s. During a period that saw the assassination of
Friday, December 20, 2019
I looked at him confused, Ã¢â¬Å"How can that be? I was pulled over a few months ago for expired tags and was told that if I get it all straightened out it would be okay.Ã¢â¬ The officer stared back at me just as confused, Ã¢â¬Å"Oh. Well after getting your license updated you should have gone to the court and let them know.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Really?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yup. But IÃ¢â¬â¢ll let you know now that IÃ¢â¬â¢m smelling copious amounts of cannabis coming from your car. And your eyes are all red and bloodshot. Where are you all coming from?Ã¢â¬ This would have been one of those moments in a sitcom where the actor breaks the fourth wall and looks into the camera. I was dumbfounded, flabbergasted, and downright pissed the fuck off. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s true that I do enjoy smoking marijuana, but we hadnÃ¢â¬â¢tÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Is there anything you wanna tell me?Ã¢â¬ I mulled my tongue around in my mouth, contemplating how to handle the situationÃ¢â¬âand thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the thing isnÃ¢â¬â¢t it? WeÃ¢â¬â¢re not taught, as civilians, how to deal with the police. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s all hearsay at best and most of what I had been hearing was not good. Ã¢â¬Å"There is weed in the car,Ã¢â¬ I told him. When backup came I was the first one out the car. I was thankful that it was still warm out because the shorts and oversized t-shirt that read, Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Disrespect the UniverseÃ¢â¬ (more irony) was the only thing I was wearing. As Officer Dail shackled the cold stainless steel handcuffs on my wrist, I felt the cold, or maybe it was the sharp metal edges, cut into my skin. Fun fact: Handcuffs donÃ¢â¬â¢t clink or clack like they do in the movies. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re also not as flexible. Backup came and helped take Valerie and Paris out the car. By then there were three cop cars in the neighborhood by then and IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure some of the neighbors must have been peeking through canary yellow curtains to see what the commotion was in their small suburbia hideaway. While leaning on the front bumper of Officer DailÃ¢â¬â¢s issued patrol car (I get a small sense of satisfaction whenever I mention it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t his car) he approached me with my cell phone in hand and asked who he could call. I hesitated then said my mom. After unlocking the phone for him and dialing Ã¢â¬Å"Martha WayneÃ¢â¬ Officer Dail walked away,Show MoreRelatedshort story1018 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Short Stories:Ã Ã Characteristics Ã¢â¬ ¢ShortÃ - Can usually be read in one sitting. Ã¢â¬ ¢Concise:Ã Ã Information offered in the story is relevant to the tale being told.Ã Ã This is unlike a novel, where the story can diverge from the main plot Ã¢â¬ ¢Usually tries to leave behind aÃ single impressionÃ or effect.Ã Ã Usually, though not always built around one character, place, idea, or act. Ã¢â¬ ¢Because they are concise, writers depend on the reader bringingÃ personal experiencesÃ andÃ prior knowledgeÃ to the story. Four MajorRead MoreThe Short Stories Ideas For Writing A Short Story Essay1097 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswriting a short story. Many a time, writers run out of these short story ideas upon exhausting their sources of short story ideas. If you are one of these writers, who have run out of short story ideas, and the deadline you have for coming up with a short story is running out, the short story writing prompts below will surely help you. Additionally, if you are being tormented by the blank Microsoft Word document staring at you because you are not able to come up with the best short story idea, youRead MoreShort Story1804 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesShort story: Definition and History. AÃ short storyÃ like any other term does not have only one definition, it has many definitions, but all of them are similar in a general idea. According to The World Book Encyclopedia (1994, Vol. 12, L-354), Ã¢â¬Å"the short story is a short work of fiction that usually centers around a single incident. Because of its shorter length, the characters and situations are fewer and less complicated than those of a novel.Ã¢â¬ In the Cambridge Advanced LearnerÃ¢â¬â¢s DictionaryRead MoreShort Stories648 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pageswhat the title to the short story is. The short story theme I am going conduct on is Ã¢â¬Å"The Secret Life of Walter MittyÃ¢â¬â¢ by James Thurber (1973). In this short story the literary elements being used is plot and symbols and the theme being full of distractions and disruption. The narrator is giving a third person point of view in sharing the thoughts of the characters. Walter Mitty the daydreamer is very humorous in the different plots of his dr ifting off. In the start of the story the plot, symbols,Read MoreShort Stories1125 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe themes of short stories are often relevant to real life? To what extent do you agree with this view? In the short stories Ã¢â¬Å"Miss BrillÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Frau Brechenmacher attends a weddingÃ¢â¬ written by Katherine Mansfield, the themes which are relevant to real life in Miss Brill are isolation and appearance versus reality. Likewise Frau Brechenmacher suffers through isolation throughout the story and also male dominance is one of the major themes that are highlighted in the story. These themes areRead MoreShort Story and People1473 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Title: Story Of An Hour Author: Kate Chopin I. On The Elements / Literary Concepts The short story Story Of An Hour is all about the series of emotions that the protagonist, Mrs. Mallard showed to the readers. With the kind of plot of this short story, it actually refers to the moments that Mrs. Mallard knew that all this time, her husband was alive. For the symbol, I like the title of this short story because it actually symbolizes the time where Mrs. Mallard died with joy. And with thatRead MoreShort Story Essay1294 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesA short story concentrates on creating a single dynamic effect and is limited in character and situation. It is a language of maximum yet economical effect. Every word must do a job, sometimes several jobs. Short stories are filled with numerous language and sound devices. These language and sound devices create a stronger image of the scenario or the characters within the text, which contribute to the overall pre-designed effect.As it is shown in the metaphor lipstick bleeding gently in CinnamonRead MoreRacism in the Short Stor ies1837 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOften we read stories that tell stories of mixing the grouping may not always be what is legal or what people consider moral at the time. The things that you can learn from someone who is not like you is amazing if people took the time to consider this before judging someone the world as we know it would be a completely different place. The notion to overlook someone because they are not the same race, gender, creed, religion seems to be the way of the world for a long time. Racism is so prevalentRead MoreThe Idol Short Story1728 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe short stories Ã¢â¬Å"The IdolÃ¢â¬ by Adolfo Bioy Casares and Ã¢â¬Å"AxolotlÃ¢â¬ by Julio CortÃ ¡zar address the notion of obsession, and the resulting harm that can come from it. Like all addictions, obsession makes one feel overwhelmed, as a single thought comes to continuously intruding our mind, causing the individual to not be able to ignore these thoughts. In Ã¢â¬Å"AxolotlÃ¢â¬ , the narr ator is drawn upon the axolotls at the Jardin des Plantes aquarium and his fascination towards the axolotls becomes an obsession. InRead MoreGothic Short Story1447 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The End. In the short story, Ã¢â¬Å"Emma Barrett,Ã¢â¬ the reader follows a search party group searching for a missing girl named Emma deep in a forest in Oregon. The story follows through first person narration by a group member named Holden. This story would be considered a gothic short story because of its use of setting, theme, symbolism, and literary devices used to portray the horror of a missing six-year-old girl. Plot is the literal chronological development of the story, the sequence of events
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Business Research Methodology for Operations Management. Answer: Introduction This assignment relates with the Journal of Operations Management in which the researcher has manipulated and explained the concept of balanced priorities in decision making process in supply chain management. The researcher has manipulated that many experts has taken several strategies of data collection methods in order to identify and analyze the organizational management decision making process in terms of environment safety and protection. In the first few sentence the approaches and rationale of environment degradation has taken into account whereas in the next few stanzas the researcher has explained the background and context of the identified study, the data collection method used and justification of the findings. Discussion of the Approach and Rationale of the study Approach The increase in demand and need for environmental protections are duly forcing many companies to reconstruct its business models and reconsider the operations of supply chain. Many experts and analysts have started to create sustainable supply chain. Many organizations has implemented and adopted several advanced strategies of supply chain; which results degradation of environmental society (Wu and Pagell 2011). Many organizations are unable to balance its long term profitability and short term environmental sustainability when adapting the concept of supply chain in an organizational management. The researcher has approaches the base of four environmental postures with the help of provided case study; that assist in deciding the social and economical elements of environmental strategic bottom line. Throughout the study the researcher has manipulated many approaches and principles which generally include sampling and data analysis and collection. Rationale It is appropriate to transform the necessary changes of supply chain in an organizational management. The reason behind this is that many companies are adopting and implementing the advance concept of supply chain and not maintaining the protection of environmental safety; which led a severe degradation in an environmental and social society (Cowell, Fairman and Lofstedt 2002). According to the content provided many companies are now examining many necessary activities like fluctuations in price level of a commodity and climate changes in order to make the environmental level sustainable. Many organizations have achieved its goal by reducing the economical impact on environment. The main rationale of the study is to maintain a sustainable environment without comprising the ability of future generations (Wu and Pagell 2011). Discussion of the Background and Context of the identified study The context and background of the study relates with the protection of environment without compromising the ability of future generations. Much organizational management is adapting and implementing the concept of supply chain by maintaining the social and economical sequence of a society (Vachon and Klassen 2006). Consideration in latest business models and increase in demand of natural resources are forcing many companies to reconstruct the manipulation of supply chain by adhering the needs of environmental protection and safety. Apart from this concept, there are several prevailing issues that led the environmental management to degrade. These include technical issues, product design and reverse logistics. The main context of the identified study is to reconstruct and restructured the base concept of company working portfolio (Wacker 2004). Many companies are maintain and manipulating the sales criterion which led the society of people and environmental to a severe degradation. Th e main motto of the study is to make those industries aware regarding the efficient use of manufacturing and production process (Sharma and Henriques 2005). The researcher has highlighted and reflected the process of organization decision making statement in which necessary and important opportunities have been provided in order to making a constant changes in the process of supply chain management scheme. Comment on the Data Collection Method used In the relevant study, primary and secondary data of fourteen companies are taken into consideration. Among these eight companies are eventually used for data manipulation. Additionally sampling and data collection and analysis have also been taken in order to build up a content approach of the study. Interview of several respondents allowed the researcher to examine the various intellectual areas of triangular data and company supply chain. At a constant saturation point, the method of interviewing has been stopped; as the conduction of various companies has been identified ((Wu and Pagell 2011). The researcher wants to comment on the data collection and the method used by the analyst. After the critical survey of the secondary method the average annual employee turnover at the time of data collection was approximately 80%; whereas the normal data suggest that much tradeoff decision has been taken as short term in nature (Pagell and Wu 2009). As per the table of data is considered, the history, performance, practices, strategy and decision making statement of an organizational management are based on maintain ace and reconstruction of supply chain management schemes. Justification of the Findings The findings genuinely collaborates that organizations are more likely to create and follow the rules when they personally experience a high level of information uncertainty. The base of three core findings has been analyzed in which the researcher has identified that (i) many organizational managers failed to lack the necessary information regarding the protection and safety of environment decisions (Wu and Pagell 2011), (ii) the researcher has identified that while making environment decision the organizational management make short term concessions to business needs and (iii) many organizations in improving the safety of environment make empirical strategies and initializing the practical approach in making environment decision. Conclusion This study concludes with the broad concept of sustainable environment with the core relation of various organizational management. This research provides an important insight of sustainable supply chain management of many industries. In the few sentence the researcher has discussed the approaches and rationale of environment degradation while in the next few stanzas the researcher has explained the context of the identified study and the data collection method used. As many organizations has started navigating tradeoff between environmental outcomes and profit; the management decision provides a magnificent opportunities to reconstruct the concept of supply chain; to reinvent and develop new and enhanced products in the long term competitive advantage. References Cowell, S.J., Fairman, R., Lofstedt, R.E., 2002. Use of risk assessment and life cycle assessment in decision making: a common policy research agenda. Risk Analysis 22 (5), 879894 Margolis, J.D., Elfenbein, H.A., Walsh, J.P., 2007. Does it pay to be good? A meta-analysis and redirection of research on corporate social and financial performance. Working Paper. Harvard Business School, Boston Pagell, M., Wu, Z., 2009. Building a more complete theory of sustainable supply chain management using case studies of ten exemplars. Journal of Supply Chain Management 45 (2), 3756 Sharma, S., Henriques, I., 2005. Stakeholder influences on sustainability practices in the Canadian forest products industry. Strategic Management Journal 26, 159180 Vachon, S., Klassen, R.D., 2006. Extending green practices across the supply chain: the impact of upstream and downstream integration. International Journal of Operations and Production Management 26 (7), 795821 Vachon, S., Klassen, R.D., 2006. Extending green practices across the supply chain: the impact of upstream and downstream integration. International Journal of Operations and Production Management 26 (7), 795821 Wacker, J.G., 2004. A theory of formal conceptual definitions: developing theorybuilding measurement instruments. Journal of Operations Management 22, 629650 Wu, Z. and Pagell, M. (2011) Balancing priorities: Decision-making in sustainable supply chain management, Journal of Operations Management, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 577-590
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Question: Describe about the Report for Climate Changes in Sydney-NSW. Answer: The earths ecological system including both animals and plants are dependent on the climatic conditions of their surroundings. When conditions are favorable, they benefit and when the conditions are extreme, they suffer. Humans are part of this as well (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2014). Community resources like water, energy, and crops are all connected to the climate. More, the human and economic losses experienced through natural phenomena like floods, droughts, cyclones, bushfires, and even hails are also connected to the climate and constantly remind us of our susceptibility to climatic conditions. These climatic conditions are subject to change, a contemporarily currently more evident than before. While the traditional man learned to adapt to the naturally occurring climate change and variability, modern man is forced to live in a climate of his own making influenced by his economic activities. Interestingly, the current rate of climatic change had never been pre dicted throughout much of the human history (Parmesan et al., 2013). The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (UNIPCC) notes that much of the global warming taking place during the past half-century can be attributed solely to human economic activities. The major activities include combustion of fossil fuels like oil, coal and natural gas which release large amounts of greenhouse gasses into the earths atmosphere. A majority of this greenhouse gasses can stay in the atmosphere for a very long time (El-Zein and Tonmoy, 2015). As such, even our earliest action to reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses, there still will be vast amounts in the atmosphere implying significant effects for decades to come. Recent research studies continue to show that the earths surface temperature will gradually rise at an estimated 0.5o C throughout the 21st century coupled with subsequent impacts (Bindoff et al., 2013). Responding to the precedent climate change challenges requires a dual strategy of adaptation planning to minimize the levels of subs equent impacts, and reducing emissions of greenhouse gasses to slow down global warming rates. Causes of Climate Change The sun is the main source of energy driving the natural processes of the earth. Nearly half of the solar energy passes through the atmosphere and warms up the earth upon reaching the surface. Then, the ocean and land radiate the heat some of it being trapped in the atmosphere by greenhouse gasses. The main greenhouse gasses are carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, water vapor and methane. The trapping of heat energy within the atmosphere is what is referred to as the greenhouse effect which keeps temperatures above the normal just like the greenhouse system in crop production. Keith, Elith, and Simpson (2014) study indicates that the current surface temperatures would be negative -18 0 C instead of 15 0 C if it were not for the greenhouse effect. The current issue of great distress is the human economic activities (mostly, land clearing, fossil fuel burning, and agriculture) that increase the concentration of atmospheric greenhouse gasses. For the past 260 years, it is estimated that the amount of carbon (IV) oxide in the atmosphere has by approximately 36% which makes the current levels of concentration higher than anytime ever recorded. Nitrous oxide levels have also been on the rise with a record 17 % while methane has also risen with nearly 151 %. As a result, the greenhouse effect has intensified owing to more heat being trapped thereby causing global warming. In line with these findings, environmental scientists report that global warming will continue leading to a rise in sea levels with profound impacts on humans and the natural system. From a global perspective, these impacts include flooding of the coastal regions, high frequency and prolonged droughts and heat waves, less amounts of snow, frost and polar ice, incre ased populations with a reduction in food and water supplies, reduced animal and plant habitats with a loss in many of these species as well as increased levels of diseases such as asthma (Levitus et al., 2012). Climate change in Sydney: NSW Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO prepared a report in 2004 for the government of NSW indicating NSWs past and likely future climate changes. In the report, NSW apparently became 0.90C warmer between 1950 and 2003 with hot days/nights increasing while the cold/nights decrease. The levels of precipitation decreased by 14mmm each decade with the highest levels of this reduction being experienced along the coast as result of increased El Nino frequency since the mid-70s. Additional, much of the state also experienced reduced daily rainfall frequency and intensity. This report projected that by the year 2030 several changes should be expected, namely: Increased average temperatures, warmer than the 90s. Hotter days (over 350C) and frostier days (below 00C). Reduced average annual rainfall frequency and intensity Reduced runoff and stream flows More severe droughts Increased likelihood of bushfire occurrence Increased intensity of extreme weather conditions especially rainfall in Sydney and the environs. Table 1 below shows the details of these findings: Source: Hennessy et al. (2001) Sydney Description Sidney is the most populated city in Australia covering 1,840 square kilometers and with a population of 4.2 million people that grows relatively rapid making it the fastest growing area in Australia (Hennessy et al., 2004). Sydney is a metropolitan region with harbors, catchments, and beaches. The citys natural resources are the main source of economic activity with major industries being extractive and manufacturing, finance, business and property, real estate development, recreation and tourism. The city is home to many of Australias tourist destinations including the famous waterway, the countrys oldest national park and both national and international wetlands. The landscape is quite diverse with bushland, market gardens, waterways and harbors, industry estate, coastal cliffs, river valleys, and sand dunes as well as urban areas that are densely developed. Sustainable water use is a challenge as well as land use which poses challenges to the environment and the living population . Though Sydney has had a diverse ecosystem of plants and animals, the pressure on biodiversity is high and many of these species may face extension (Hennessy et al., 2004). Sydneys Climate Sydney has relatively warm summers with highs of up to 260C, recorded in the month of January. However, the catchments have been recording up to highs of 350C for three consecutive days within a year. Winters are usually cool with lows of up to 170C, recorded in the month of July. It is rear for temperatures to fall below 00C. Average annual rainfall is high at approximately 1100 mm with peak precipitation being between the months of January and March. Rainfall variability is high from one to another. Hailstorms are a common phenomenon with the worst being recorded in the year 1999 costing the taxpayer over 2 billion USD in recovery processes. Bushfires are also common (Greene, Begg, and Davies, 2012). Sydneys climate change Sydney has been experiencing nearly 0.80C warming since the mid-20th century. This is largely due to human activities. At the same time, annual rainfall has been declining at approximately 55mm per decade; however, distinguishing the human contributions to this decline from natural variability is hard (Sullivan et al., 2015). Research indicates that Sydneys future climate will be warmer and likely drier than is. Events of this nature are expected to increase the frequency of heat waves, increase the levels of evaporation, as well as fire risks and extreme winds. Table 2 below clearly shows the details of these projections comparing the present average conditions with projected changes from 2030 to 2070. These future projections are a representation of assumptions concerning the global emissions of greenhouse gasses and the differences in various climatic systems and models. Source: Hennessy et al. (2004) Impact of Climate Changes in Sydney It is expected that the impact of these climatic changes will be experienced through extreme weather events. It is more likely that the consequences of the changes in average evaporation, rainfall and temperature will be a long time. Projections indicate that there will be hotter days and therefore bushfires, droughts, and more intense storms. All this place the human, plant and animal life, and property at risk (Davies and Wright, 2014). Adaptations to Climate Change This is risk management strategies with actions to minimize the negative effects of climate change while taking advantage of arising opportunities. The strategies adopted vary from one region to the next because today's plans will have future implications on climate vulnerability. Doing this helps minimize some social, economic and environmental costs associated with climate change. Examples of potential measures of relevance to the city of Sydney include: Improving the efficiency of water use through public education on appropriate usage and water recycling (Mukheibir and Currie, 2016). Enhancing supplies through desalination and groundwater extraction Development of housing designs that are energy efficient Instituting early warning systems and public communication against heat waves. Redesigning infrastructure to withstand climate change Developing and maintaining green spaces within urban areas. Evaluating disaster management strategies Availing resources for these strategies needs a continuous expansion of the available knowledge through education and research. Conclusion Empirically, climate change is a reality. It is characterized by changes in rainfall patterns, sea level, winds, temperature, and humidity. Regional impacts and adaptations vary but generally, climate change impacts manifest in a wide variety of phenomena that result in social implications like food shortage, water, and energy inefficiency as well as refugee movements (Wise et al., 2014). Adaptions strategies depend on a particular and those of Sydney include mitigation measures for water and energy use efficiency as well as disaster management approaches. References Bindoff, N.L., Stott, P.A., AchutaRao, M., Allen, M.R., Gillett, N., Gutzler, D., Hansingo, K., Hegerl, G., Hu, Y., Jain, S. and Mokhov, I.I., 2013. Detection and attribution of climate change: from global to regional. Davies, P.J. and Wright, I.A., 2014. A review of policy, legal, land use and social change in the management of urban water resources in Sydney, Australia: A brief reflection of challenges and lessons from the last 200 years. Land Use Policy, 36, pp.450-460. El-Zein, A. and Tonmoy, F.N., 2015. Assessment of vulnerability to climate change using a multi-criteria outranking approach with application to heat stress in Sydney. Ecological Indicators, 48, pp.207-217. Greene, G., Begg, G. and Davies, P.J., 2012. Climate change impact assessment-the sydney catchment authoritys approach. Hennessy, K., Page, C., McInnes, K., Jones, R., Bathols, J., Collins, D., and Jones, D. 2004. Climate Change in New South Wales. Part 2. Projected Changes in Climate Extremes. Consultancy report for the New South Wales Greenhouse Office by CSIRO and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2014. Climate Change 2014Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability: Regional Aspects. Cambridge University Press. Keith, D.A., Elith, J. and Simpson, C.C., 2014. Predicting distribution changes of a mire ecosystem under future climates. Diversity and distributions, 20(4), pp.440-454. Levitus, S., Antonov, J.I., Boyer, T.P., Baranova, O.K., Garcia, H.E., Locarnini, R.A., Mishonov, A.V., Reagan, J.R., Seidov, D., Yarosh, E.S. and Zweng, M.M., 2012. World ocean heat content and thermosteric sea level change (02000 m), 19552010. Geophysical Research Letters, 39(10). Mukheibir, P. and Currie, L., 2016. A whole of water approach for the city of Sydney. Water Utility Journal. Parmesan, C., Burrows, M.T., Duarte, C.M., Poloczanska, E.S., Richardson, A.J., Schoeman, D.S. and Singer, M.C., 2013. Beyond climate change attribution in conservation and ecological research. Ecology letters, 16(s1), pp.58-71. Sullivan, J., Allen, G., Nelson, N. and Quinn, N., 2013. Sydney Water's climate change adaptation journey:[Sydney Water Climate Change Adaptation Program. Key research findings and organisational learnings.]. Water: Journal of the Australian Water Association, 40(6), p.57. Wise, R.M., Fazey, I., Smith, M.S., Park, S.E., Eakin, H.C., Van Garderen, E.A. and Campbell, B., 2014. Reconceptualising adaptation to climate change as part of pathways of change and response. Global Environmental Change, 28, pp.325-336.